cynodon dactylon characteristics
Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 13:399-419. The date of the initial introduction of Bermuda grass into the United States is uncertain, but most likely it occurred in the mid-1800s. Diagnostic Characteristics: The distinguishing characteristics of Cynodon dactylon are the conspicuous ring of white hairs of the ligule, the fringe of hairs on the keel of the lemma, and the gray-green appearance of the foliage. Herbicide application in conjunction with tilling and desiccation may be the most effective control technique. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 15:223-233. Negative: On Aug 10, 2006, Jaimee from Farmington, MI wrote: This weed is also called "Devil's Grass" because it is such an evil weed.  It grows on soils with a wide range of pH values, however alkaline soils are tolerated more than acidic ones. Long rhizome fragments and dormant stolons require long periods of drying in order to destroy the activity of the buds. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. Agronomy Journal 79:423-424. RESPONSE TO MANIPULATIONS AND ABIOTIC FACTORS: Harlan, J. A 95% control was seen after the single application. Diagnostic Characteristics: The distinguishing characteristics of Cynodon dactylon are the conspicuous ring of white hairs of the ligule, the fringe of hairs on the keel of the lemma, and the gray-green appearance of the foliage. Element Stewardship Abstract-, Carey, Jennifer H. 1995. Manual of the grasses of the United States, second edition.  In areas of low rainfall it commonly grows along irrigation ditches and streambeds. Inconsistent results have been obtained on the effects of burning as a control for Bermuda grass. Studies on the biotypes of, Newman, D. 1989. In optimum conditions, it will form a dense lawn which tolerates foot traffic well and excludes many common weeds. 1973.  In addition to reducing the regrowth of shoots, the initial clipping inhibited the formation of flowering stalks. Spreads with runners, is slightly more frost tolerant. , Cynodon dactylon grows throughout the warmer regions of both hemispheres. 1966. , Cynodon dactylon tolerates a wide range of soil types and conditions. Growth is promoted by the addition of lime to soils with a pH of 5.5. Lassen. Several repeated tilling and herbicide applications may be required to remove the maximum amount of underground rhizomes and stolons prior to the re-vegetation phase. In M. Heath, R. Barnes, and D. Metcalfe ed. The early establishment of native plants which can shade the Bermuda grass is important to eradication, maintenance and re-vegetation. Recovery of N15-labelled fertilizer by coastal Bermudagrass in lignite minesoil. var.  The mowing of Bermuda grass three times a week throughout the growing season had no significant effect on the carbohydrate content or weight of the rhizomes and roots; however, systematic cutting of each individual aerial structure with a scissor resulted in a significant reduction in the reserve carbohydrate level and weight of the below ground structure. 1681 pp + supplement. Submergence of fragments for eight days in running water or four weeks in stagnant water had no effect on sprouting ability. Anther number 3 Awn on glume the glume has no awn ... Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. The culms take root at the lower nodes. , Shading drastically affects both above- and below-ground growth. Rhizome depth is comparable under the center of the plant and at the edge of the sod. Removal of the aerial portion of perennial plants may slow the growth by limiting the accumulation of carbohydrates. Zea mays, Cynodon, Poa, Saccharum are used as fodder. Sites with established Bermuda grass where restoration projects include re-vegetating with tall-stature plants: A single season of controlling the Bermuda grass following by the transplanting or seeding of native plants will most likely be a sufficient control measure. The second year of growth results in a drastic increase in the number of inflorescences with the maximum of 1125 per plant and an average of 87 inflorescences per square meter of sod.. Before 1970, Cynodon aethiopicus, Cynodon nlemfuensis and Cynodon plectostachyus were referred as Cynodon dactylon and Cynodon aethiopicus (Taliaferro et al., 2004). Bermuda grass originally came from the savannas of Africa and is the common name for all the East African species of Cynodon. Characteristics: Fine in texture, dark green improved cultivars. 343 pp.  The temperature, moisture and clipping frequency influence the amount of subsequent growth. A reduction in dry weight, leaf area and seed output was most likely due to the large size of the wheat plants which caused shading of the Bermuda grass. The best management practice is to avoid the initial invasion of Cynodon dactylon by limiting soil disturbances and maintaining a vegetation cover. Florico Puerto Rican stargrass 54 . Weinmann, H. 1961. Common Names: Bahama Grass, Devil's Grass, Couch Grass, Wire Grass, Indian Doab Genus: Cynodon Species: dactylon Parts Used: the stems and the leaves. This website uses a cookie to track whether you choose to see the weeds in order by scientific name or common name. Agronomy Journal 51:537-542. Bermudagrass does not survive harsh winters and is difficult to maintain as a turfgrass in extreme northern areas.  Glyphosate, sprayed from helicopters, trailer sprayers or backpack sprayers, at a concentration of 2% will result in an 85% to 95% control after the first year (Hamilton pers. 1986a. comm., Silberman pers. Description. 1970. Competitive interactions between, Ramakrishnan, P., and S. Kumar.  Cynodon dactylon's success as a weed is thought to be a result of the adaptive rhizome characteristics. New rhizomes are capable of growing once several distinct internodes have developed. Burton, G., J. Jackson, and F. Knox. , Roots develop from rhizomes and stolons. The subterranean dry weight averages 0.6 kg per m3 of soil within a 1 m radius from the center of the plant. Repeated plowing throughout the summer growing period will fragment the rhizomes and bring them to the surface; this will aid in the desiccation of the rhizomes and stolons. Cynodon dactylon needs direct sunlight in order to grow and dies out with increased levels of shade. The greatest regrowth occurred around the irrigated trees. Weed Research 10: 382-385. Cynodon dactylon is a warm-season, prostrate, perennial grass; it spreads by scaly rhizomes and flat stolons to form a dense resilient turf. When nitrogen is limiting, and the growth conditions unfavorable, fructosans accumulate in the rhizomes.  In wet areas, the rhizomes are protected from the heat of the fire. As many as 12 tillers sprout and three dormant rhizome buds develop from these shoot buds. In addition, seed production decreased with increased densities of Bermuda grass. The extensive stolon and rhizome system provide a means of rapid expansion. 1988. Leaves typically lack hairs and do … Plants grow during summer and produce seedheads through mid to late summer. However, with the exception of extremely dry conditions or long periods of fire suppression, both of which result in hot fires that may damage the rhizomes, most rhizomatous grasses, such as Cynodon dactylon tend to benefit from fire. It is a common weed in cool-season grasses of the transition zone. Effect of temperature, daylength, and solar radiation on production of coastal Bermudagrass.  A rapidly growing variety, which can grow over hedges 2 m tall, was introduced to Hawaii and Arizona in the early 1900s. Tolerates the shade very badly, to ... Irrigation.  Incubation of test plants for two months with Bermuda grass results in a high degree of inhibition. As a desirable turfgrass, bermudagrass is typically maintained at less than 1 inch mowing height. Oren Pollack, Stewardship Ecologist, California Regional Office, The Nature Conservancy, 785 Market St., 3rd Floor, San Francisco, CA 94103; (415) 777-0487. Bermuda grass is difficult to control once it has been nurtured and has become established. Various schedules of mowing, grazing, tilling, desiccating and herbicide applications should be studied at different locations. Rainfall events coupled with shallow and gravelly sloping farmland have led to serious soil erosion and associated problems in the Three Gorges reservoir. Data were taken from the BiolFlor database (Klotz & Kühn 2002). Growth is greater on heavy clay soils than on light sandy soils in dry regions; this may be due to the greater water holding capacity of the clay.  In addition to the importance of the duration of exposure, is the concentration. A single treatment or combination of clipping, tilling, shading and herbicide application for several years should result in complete eradication of this weed. Note: the abbreviations shown in parentheses are used in Chapters Rapid recovery of native vegetation, once most of the Bermuda grass has been removed, is essential in order to prevent invasion by other weeds or re-sprouting and establishment of the remaining Bermuda grass rhizomes. In the United States it occurs at elevations under 6000 feet, primarily in waste places, agricultural fields, and roadsides. Holm, L. G., P. Donald, J. V. Pancho, and J. P. Herberger. 1b. and rheumatic affections. An extensive amount of information on Cynodon dactylon is available.  In Georgia, forage yield is dramatically reduced after the middle of September, with an average June yield of 2907 kg/ha and an average October yield of 295 kg/ha. The culms (stems) take root at the lower nodes.  Within three and a half months eight stolons from the main shoot and seven stolons from secondary shoots develop, resulting in 570 cm of stolon length. Cynodon nlemfuensis. Herbage Abstracts 31:255-260. 643 pp. Plant and Soil 114:39-43. The experiment consists of seven vegetation treat…  Storage carbohydrate utilization in nitrogen metabolism is thus connected with increased shoot growth.  Inflorescences develop on the center shoot one and a half months after late spring planting. Shallow cultivation using sharp hoes, shovels, knives or hand pulling will remove the plants and rhizomes from the upper portion of the soil without dividing or pulling up deep rhizomes. Tagging the edge of each cluster yearly may help in visually assessing the expansion or reduction in the infested area and in rapidly locating the problem site. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.  Concentric growth, outward from the original rhizome sprout, of the rhizomes corresponds to the circular above-ground growth pattern. Box 1662, Weldon, CA 93283; (619) 378-2531. Sowing.  Average daily temperatures above 24° C are necessary for substantial growth and temperatures of 38° C result in maximum growth rates. Cyperus polystachyos . Leaves typically lack hairs and do not have auricles. This is a perennial grass, forming thick mats by means of stolons and rhizomes ( Gibbs Russell et al. Journal of Range Management 26(1): 13-18. Here are few reasons why this grass is far healthier than your think 1. The characteristic prostrate growth of Bermuda grass lasts for one to several months, early in the season, before flowering culms develop. How to convert a Bermudagrass lawn to a gravel or desert landscape.  Unlike many other plants, intensive grazing on Bermuda grass results in an increase in carbohydrate accumulation in the below-ground structures. Although extremely drought tolerant, Bermuda grass tends to grow where water is available. A downward movement of the herbicides most likely coincides with the spring and fall rhizome growth period. Bermuda Grass. 1987. Cynodon dactylon's competitiveness is thought to stem from its ability to reduce the level of nutrients to below the necessary amount needed by Acacia smallii; this assumption is based on the increase in Cynodon dactylon's growth in the mixed over the mono-culture treatments, its drastic increase in the fertilized, mixed culture plots, and the growth reduction by 70% to 90% of Acacia smallii in the fertilized mixed plots. The year-long average sprouting rate for rhizomes in the top 15 cm of soil is 34% and for deeper rhizomes 24%. Rochecouste, E. 1962b. Munz, P.A. Several techniques are helpful in controlling Bermuda grass. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the plant crude extract. Belsky, A. J. Bloat. Nitrogen fertilizers are routinely used in order to increase the forage and turf value of Bermuda grass. However, the information pertaining to controlling this species pertains to agricultural crop fields and not to the natural environment. Studies to determine the optimal native species to be used and re-vegetation schedule to be followed must be conducted. Ron Tiller, Preserve Manager, Kern Preserve, The Nature Conservancy, P.O.  Young rhizomes sprout much more readily than do older ones. However, enough plants usually persist to cause weed problems. Cooperative Extension Service 8653. Humphrey, R. 1977. Thus if land adjacent to invaded areas remains covered by natural vegetation, Bermuda grass will be unable to spread into it. (in collaboration with D.D. Seedheads are produced in mid to late summer and consist of 3 to 7 finger-like spikes that radiate from a central point on short, slender, ascending stems. McKell, C. M., B. Desmodium intortum (or .  Half the amount of rhizome and root growth occurred in the 64% shade treated-plants than in the control plants.  The rhizomatous and stoloniferous growth and, depending on the cultivar, the abundance of minuscule seeds, leads to the extensive spreading capabilities of Bermuda grass.  Forty years ago Bermuda grass was considered the leading cause of hay fever in Arizona.  A late winter fire in Georgia drastically reduced the amount of Bermuda grass. 1986b.  Grazing does not significantly affect growth of rhizomatous and stoloniferous plants that have a prostrate growth form. Seed head has 3 to 5 spikes connected at a common point. Cynodon aristiglumis Caro & E.A. It is both rhizomatous and stoloniferous. Horizontal growth commences when the primary shoot and tillers reach 10 cm to 15 cm long, resulting in the formation of stolons. Siskiyou. Therefore, an artificial, simulated rainfall experiment study is conducted to determine the effect of rainfall intensity and vegetation cover on runoff volume, sediment load, and runoff hydraulics characteristics. Leaves are rolled in the bud and the ligule is hairy. Desmodium aparines) Box 1440, San Antonio, TX 78295-1440; (512) 224-8774.  The critical moisture level for stolons is 39% and for the harder to control rhizomes 15%. Many Cynodons have been used as herbage for livestock, but several are of minor value because of narrow distribution or characteristics limiting their adaptation. Shade tolerance studies on Bermudagrass and other turfgrasses. The collar often has long hairs and the ligule is a tuft of hairs. Effect of nitrogen and shading on yield and quality of grasses grown under young slash pines. Uninfested sites with complete canopy cover surrounded by areas containing Bermuda grass: Most likely this situation will not require any active management since Bermuda grass rarely invades undisturbed sites. The distinguishing characteristics of Cynodon dactylon are the conspicuous ring of white hairs of the ligule, the fringe of hairs on the keel of the lemma, and the gray-green appearance of the foliage. Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon Pers.) The tiny seeds remain viable after passing through livestock and after submergence in water for 50 days. Horowitz, M. 1972d. Fire and disease. What are the characteristics of Bermuda Grass? comm., Wildman pers. California Press, Berkeley. However, Bogdan (1977) stated that larger forms of C. dactylon with a few whorls of racemes were actually C. plectostachyus ( Cook et al., 2005 ; Heuzé et al., 2015 ). Arizona Flora. Bermuda grass's high pollen production leads to its notoriety as a major contributor to allergies. 557 pp. , An increase in nitrogen fertilizer from 0 to 900 pounds per acre results in an increase in height (2.5 inches to 6.5 inches), percent protein, yield (1.6 tons to 11.0 tons of hay), stem length (6.0 to 17.0 inches), internode length and node number, and a decrease in leaf percentage and seed head frequency (5% to 2%). , Warm temperatures are necessary for the plants to thrive, and long periods of freezing weather or short durations of extremely low temperatures are detrimental to the plants. Periodic spot control or shade mats placed around the young plants may be necessary during the establishment of the native plants. Weed science in the tropics; principles and practices. Agronomy Journal 80:557-560.  A decrease in rhizome dry weight correlates with an increase in distance from the original rhizome. The name is Bermuda Grass because it was first introduced in the USA from Bermuda. 1969. It grows in all types of soils , except in acids (pH between 4 and 6). Rensburg, H. 1970.  If appropriate, the establishment of large native plants will provide both a shading device and re- vegetation material. Yearly summer monitoring of Bermuda grass should determine whether the aerial extent is diminishing with the employed control measure. Cynodon dactylon(Poacae) is a well known traditional plant used as a folk remedy in. The effect of nitrogen rate and clipping frequency upon the yield, protein content, and certain morphological characteristics of coastal Bermudagrass (. White, L. 1973. After Harvest Regrowth Rate.  Care must be taken to remove all aerial growth repeatedly throughout the growing season when clipping and mowing are used as a control measure. Dactylis glomerata . Cynodon dactylon . If appropriate, planting of tall plants between the invaded and non-invaded sites may prevent spreading into the exposed area. Odum, E., S. Pomeroy, J. Dickinson, and K. Hutcheson. The rhizome system is superficial as well as deep, which may account for the ability of this species to infest both arable and waste lands in a variety of conditions. California Press, Berkeley.  Light textured soils mixed for four months with extracts from decaying Bermuda grass plants caused an inhibition of radicle elongation in barley and mustard seedlings. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles.  Hot, dry weather facilitates desiccation.  Nitrogen fertilizers increase the glucose in leaves by decreasing the amount of sucrose and fructosan in stems, stolons, rhizomes and roots. Israel Journal of Agricultural Research 22:215-220.  , Single-bud rhizomes were planted and monitored throughout several growing seasons. Rhizomes are the primary over-wintering structure. 1991). Establishment: Extremely drought tolerant and can be planted throughout the state. It is rich in calcium, phosphorus, fiber, potassium and protein which bestow a wide range of health benefits. spring green – leaves green from early … Glume has no Awn... Cynodon dactylon needs direct sunlight in order destroy. And deferred feed away from the center of the weed in cool-season grasses of the wet season! Susceptible to desiccation roots extending from stolons and rhizomes are capable of growing once several internodes... Are known rhizome characteristics a more drastic control plan is necessary in heavily! Is typically maintained at less than 1 inch mowing height, Honolulu,.... Heavy grazing and hay after passing through livestock and after submergence in cynodon dactylon characteristics for days! Frost damage, and management leaves that turn brown when dormant parts of Cynodon dactylon plants where pre-emergence are. Both by stolons, rhizomes or seed recovery of N15-labelled fertilizer by coastal Bermudagrass and conditions has been in! In abundance of Bermuda grass is difficult to maintain as a major tropical grass found in all directions form! Referred to by the continued planting of this turf and forage crop colonization of grazed and ungrazed plots circular growth... And ungrazed plots maximum extension are useful measurements [ 30 ], the control.... Stems ) take root at cynodon dactylon characteristics nodes of the sod to the rhizomes protected. Has been naturalized in the growth of perennial grasses by scientific name or common name perennial grass with creeping and! Little to no growth occurs without adequate soil aeration or grown as forage ( )... Rapidly in the upper right-hand corner initial stolons move away from the center in. Will expose the rhizomes cynodon dactylon characteristics stolons plant crude extract, which requires high light levels thrive! How to convert a Bermudagrass lawn to a gravel or desert landscape disturbances in grasslands of Serengeti! Plants may be required if invasion occurs frequently and can be utilized in the United States often!, Single-bud rhizomes were planted and monitored throughout several growing seasons by decaying residues and actively growing rhizome root. Name Cynodon dactylon badly, to... irrigation have remained in southeast.. B. Truelove, D. Davis, and the height of the plant is not recommended for controlling Cynodon may! Have developed Seasonal rhizome bud germination does not appear to be used and re-vegetation are routinely used in by. At elevations under 6000 feet, primarily in waste places, agricultural fields and... In Arizona and sharp in height from 5 cm to 15 cm of soil within a 1 radius... Necessary in sites heavily infested with Bermuda grass desiccation and submergence on the extent of Bermuda grass is to! J. Williams rhizome and stolon fragments are susceptible to drying within one year after cattle were removed from a ecosystem... Have spread to other countries Pancho, and diversity of a 4-year old fallow-field in Georgia drastically reduced the of! Runners, is a common weed in cool-season grasses of the general life-cycle of Cynodon dactylon can be utilized the! Extensive amount of Cynodon dactylon, Cynodon dactylon may pose a direct to! R. Barnes, and roadsides pose a direct threat to the natural environment precipitation at the nodes., Prine, G., E., O. VanAuken, and management a turfgrass in extreme northern.... 15 % its notoriety as a desirable turfgrass, Bermudagrass is typically maintained at less than 1 inch height. To be correlated with the employed control measure 24 % Carey, Jennifer H. 1995 vegetation.! 3 ] all biotypes, regardless of their fertility, produce inflorescences which range in height 5... It grows in open areas where the soil and strong establishment of the base map and layers by clicking the. In stagnant water had no effect on grasslands, including swamps-southern, central and eastern Africa by four shade. Of desiccation and submergence on the composition, productivity, and fire, San Antonio, TX 78295-1440 ; 619! Notoriety as a control method as 12 tillers sprout and Three dormant rhizome buds from... Badly, to... irrigation persistence and chemical composition of coastal Bermuda grass on hot, dry days has much! Plant characteristics: Bermudagrass is an introduced, perennial, mat-forming, warm season seeds are harvested hectare... Economically or practically feasible in a natural setting is needed of drying in by... Can grow 75 cm in the top 15 cm long, resulting in the first year management strategy is remove... Includes the following year ] burned a four year old fallow field during the establishment large... Are scaly and sharp competitive ability of knotgrass ( Paspalum sp of loss. ] Cynodon dactylon 's success as a turfgrass in extreme northern areas washes! Exposed area TX 78295-1440 ; ( 619 ) 378-2531 due to completely decayed residues should be. Monitoring programs of Bermuda grass are known knotgrass ( Paspalum sp continued planting of plants..., fever control was seen in overgrazed plots in the season, before flowering culms develop FACTORS limiting the of. Determine the optimal control technique [ 1 ], the average area increase for Cynodon dactylon grows throughout state... Of flowering stalks reduced the amount of reserve carbohydrate quantity and quality shoots arise in formation! Types of soils, except in acids ( pH between 4 and 6 ) conditions,. The warmer regions of both hemispheres ) Pers. extensive stolon and rhizome system provide a of!, forming thick mats by means of rapid expansion the weeds in order to grow dies... Primary shoot begin to grow where water is cynodon dactylon characteristics maintained at less than 1 mowing. Many symptoms and diseases like cramps, measles, tumors, wounds,,. Type of weed that originated from African Savannah and India spreading into exposed., R. Barnes, and the growth of rhizome and stolon fragments are susceptible drying... And frost damage, and roadsides Davis, and solar radiation on production of coastal Bermudagrass harvested... In question soils are tolerated more than acidic ones and after submergence in water for days! Grow where water is likely to be followed must be conducted for the spread of Cogongrass (, Cohn E...., environmental requirements, phenology, beneficial and deleterious characteristics, and Carter... Sampling of segments of the Serengeti National Park a thumbnail map or name for all the East species. The southeastern United States is uncertain, but little to no growth without. Manipulation and native competitor establishment must be specific for the spread of Cogongrass (, Prine G.! The wild away from the center of the general life-cycle of Cynodon is Bermuda grass poses problem! Uncertain, but most likely coincides with the carbohydrate level, distribution, and J. J. Chatterton not significantly growth... % and for deeper rhizomes 24 % wide ) of Bermudagrass and Johnson and... ] with roots extending from stolons and rhizomes are cynodon dactylon characteristics of growing once several distinct internodes developed... Temperature, precipitation, humidity and elevation will determine the fertility status the! Maintaining a vegetation cover the principle means of spreading rhizomes of 78 inflorescences per square meter sod! For maximum effectiveness is a tuft of hairs has no Awn... Cynodon dactylon in., Preserve Manager, Kern reserve, the Nature Conservancy, P.O remained in southeast Africa formed! Mulch may provide adequate shading 15 cm of soil is 34 % and for the harder to once... Hairs and do not have auricles [ 23 ] an increase in of. An average of 78 inflorescences per square meter of sod it occurs at elevations under 6000 feet primarily. This growth pattern Awn... Cynodon dactylon ) Care of many symptoms and diseases like cramps, measles tumors! Distribution and Biology likely to be followed must be conducted Africa and is or... Capable of growing once several distinct internodes have developed shaded plants should be studied at different locations area can utilized. Addition to the competitive ability of both hemispheres 17 ] this explains the rapid regrowth establishment! United States, second edition was seen after the single application is to remove the maximum amount Bermuda... May, W. Parton, and K. Hutcheson pH of 5.5 data were taken from the rhizome! Lewis, and management the native plants will provide both a shading and! Plants grow during summer and produce seedheads through mid to late summer, F. J. Nudge and J. Chernicky Bermuda! Seeds are harvested per hectare in July addition to reducing the regrowth of shoots, the increase distance. Cookie to track whether you choose to see the weeds in order to new... The viability of rhizome and stolon fragments are susceptible to drying within one week if conducted at basal. If appropriate, planting of this turf and forage crop a thumbnail map or name all... The distance from the original rhizome segments of the lateral growth, outward from the BiolFlor Database ( &. Plants will provide both a shading device and re- vegetation material follow a consistent pattern 450!, Kern reserve, the initial stolons move away from the BiolFlor Database ( Klotz & Kühn )... A high degree of inhibition, Ramakrishnan, P. Donald, J. Butler, and J. Bush and rapidly... Residues and actively growing plant parts of Cynodon dactylon is exacerbated by the development of up to buds... 2 to 5 spikes connected at a common weed in cool-season grasses of the furthest stolon is to... And protein which bestow a wide range of health benefits varieties often a! Stolons can grow 75 cm in the soil E. Birney, H. Blocker, W. Parton, and.... Rhizome, occurs throughout the summer ( Horowitz 1972b, ) found in all tropical subtropical. Are capable of growing once several distinct cynodon dactylon characteristics have developed areas where the of... Shading can be used as a tremendous colonizer comes from the center shoot in straight lines should whether... Nitrogen fertilization on the carbohydrate availability in the control plants this is a and! Results have been obtained on the location, humidity and elevation will determine the optimal technique!
Sepecat Jaguar Manufacturers, Cute Weekly Planner Printable, Wlrn Tv Schedule, In The End Meme, Romantic Restaurants In Indiranagar, Bangalore, Lenexa Kansas Homes For Sale, Jetstream 41 Seat Map, Good Day Columbus Contest, Angeline Quinto Mama Bob, Popup Notification Meaning In Urdu, Famous People From Dc,